Stability of radical-functionalized gold surfaces by self-assembly and on-surface chemistry
Tobias Junghoefer, Ewa Malgorzata Nowik-Boltyk, J. Alejandro de Sousa, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Thomas Chassé, Jaume Veciana, Marta Mas-Torrent, Concepció Rovira, Núria Crivillers and Maria Benedetta Casu *
We have investigated the radical functionalization of gold surfaces with a derivative of the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical using two methods: by chemisorption from the radical solution and by on-surface chemical derivation from a precursor.
We have investigated the obtained self-assembled monolayers by photon-energy dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our results show that the molecules were successfully anchored on the surfaces. We have used a robust method that can be applied to a variety of materials to assess the stability of the functionalized interface. The monolayers are characterized by air and X-ray beam stability unprecedented for films of organic radicals. Over very long X-ray beam exposure we observed a dynamic nature of the radical–Au complex. The results clearly indicate that (mono)layers of PTM radical derivatives have the necessary stability to withstand device applications.
The spin–spin interactions between unpaired electrons in organic (poly)radicals, especially nitroxides, are largely investigated and are of crucial importance for their applications in areas such as organic magnetism, molecular charge transfer, or multiple spin labeling in structural biology. Recently, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl and polymers functionalized with nitroxides have been described as successful redox mediators in several electrochemical applications; however, the study of spin–spin interaction effect in such an area is absent.
Metallacarboranes with the shape of the Greek letter θ, such as [Co(C2B9H11)2]−, were tested, for the first time, as efficient photoredox catalysts in the oxidation of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols in water. Their efficiency is linked to their high solubility in water, their high oxidizing power (Co4+/3+), and their absence of fluorescence on excitation, among others.
Resistive switching effect is observed for a gallium–indium/gallium oxide/graphene junction. The use of a gallium-based liquid metal (LM) alloy, in this case, the eutectic gallium–indium with its native gallium oxide skin, directly provides the metal top contact and the oxide layer needed to fabricate a memory.
A push–pull-functionalized stilbene has been prepared, with an electroactive perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM˙) radical and dimethylamine units as electron-withdrawing and -donating moieties, respectively, showing an electrocatalytic redox-induced Z → E isomerization where the open-shell nature of PTM˙ plays a key role in the isomerization ocurrance.
Probing nanoscale electrical properties of organic semiconducting materials at the interface with an electrolyte solution under externally applied voltages is key in the field of organic bioelectronics. It is demonstrated that the conductivity and interfacial capacitance of the active channel of an electrolyte‐gated organic field‐effect transistor (EGOFET) under operation can be probed at the nanoscale using scanning dielectric microscopy in force detection mode in liquid environment.