Four novel transition metal-carborane photosensitisers were prepared by Sonogashira cross-coupling of 1-(4-ethynylbenzyl)-2-methyl-o-carborane (A-CB) with halogenated Ru(II)- or Ir(III)-phenanthroline complexes. The resulting boron-rich complexes with one (RuCB and IrCB) or two carborane cages (RuCB2 and IrCB2) were spectroscopically characterised, and their photophysical properties investigated. RuCB displayed the most attractive photophysical properties in solution (λem 635 nm, τT 2.53 μs, and φp 20.4 %).
Nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption studies were used to explore the 3MLCT nature of the triplet excited states, and the highest singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) were obtained for the mono-carborane-phenanthroline complexes (RuCB: 52 % and IrCB: 25 %). None of the complexes produce dark toxicity in SKBR-3 cells after incubation under photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions. Remarkably, mono-carboranes RuCB and IrCB were the best internalised by the SKBR-3 cells, demonstrating the first examples of tris-bidentate transition metal-carborane complexes acting as triplet photosensitisers for PDT with a high photoactivity; RuCB or IrCB killed ∼50 % of SKBR-3 cells at 10 μM after irradiation. Therefore, the high-boron content and the photoactive properties of these photosensitisers make them potential candidates as dual anti-cancer agents for PDT and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).
Bioactive materials for therapy and diagnosis
Ru(II) and Ir(III) phenanthroline-based photosensitisers bearing o-carborane: PDT agents with boron carriers for potential BNCT
Sylvia M. Draper, Robert Conway-Kenny, Albert Ferrer-Ugalde, Oriol Careta, Xiaoneng Cui, Jianzhang Zhao, Carme Nogues, Rosario Nunez and Justo Cabrera-González
Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess if the sodium salt of cobaltabis(dicarbollide) and its di-iodinated derivative (Na[o-COSAN] and Na[8,8′-I2-o-COSAN]) could be promising agents for dual anti-cancer treatment (chemotherapy + BNCT) for GBM. Methods: The biological activities of the small molecules were evaluated in vitro with glioblastoma cells lines U87 and T98G in 2D and 3D cell models and in vivo in the small model animal Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) at the L4-stage and using the eggs. Results: Our studies indicated that only spheroids from the U87 cell line have impaired growth after treatment with both compounds, suggesting an increased resistance from T98G spheroids, contrary to what was observed in the monolayer culture, which highlights the need to employ 3D models for future GBM studies.
Carbon dots are an emerging family of zero-dimensional nanocarbons behaving as tunable light harvesters and photoactivated charge donors. Coupling them to carbon nanotubes, which are well-known electron acceptors with excellent charge transport capabilities, is very promising for several applications.
Fabricating polymeric scaffolds using cost-effective manufacturing processes is still challenging. Gas foaming techniques using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) have attracted attention for producing synthetic polymer matrices; however, the high-pressure requirements are often a technological barrier for its widespread use. Compressed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, known as Freon R134a, offers advantages over CO2 in manufacturing processes in terms of lower pressure and temperature conditions and the use of low-cost equipment.
The increasing use of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke management has opened the window to local intraarterial brain delivery of therapeutic agents. In this context, the use of nanomedicine could further improve the delivery of new treatments for specific brain targeting, tracking and guidance. In this study we take advantage of this new endovascular approach to deliver biocompatible poly(D-L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocapsules functionalized with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and Cy7.5 for magnetic targeting, magnetic resonance and fluorescent molecular imaging.
The anionic cobaltabis (dicarbollide) [3,3′-Co(1,2-C2B9H11)2]−, [o-COSAN]−, is the most studied icosahedral metallacarborane. The sodium salts of [o-COSAN]− could be an ideal candidate for the anti-cancer treatment Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) as it possesses the ability to readily cross biological membranes thereby producing cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. BNCT is a cancer therapy based on the potential of 10B atoms to produce α particles that cross tissues in which the 10B is accumulated without damaging the surrounding healthy tissues, after being irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons.